MCAT Organic Chemistry

Acid Derivatives

MCAT Organic Chemistry > Acid Derivatives

Background

Acid derivatives are very important molecules for biological processes, particularly phosphate esters, which can be found in membranes, nucleic acids and metabolic reactions.

Acid derivatives refer to compounds with a carboxyl group and are one of the most widely found functional groups in chemistry and biochemistry. These compounds can be formed by adding RCOOH + SOCL2, PCL3, or PBr3. Examples of these include...

They can undergo many different nucleophillic substitutions

H2O yields carboxylic acid

ROH yields an ester

NH3 yields an amide

Nomenclature

The suffix used in IUPAC naming of acid chlorides is “-oyl chloride”.

For anhydrides, it is “-oic anhydride

For amides it is “-amide

For esters, it is “-oate”.

The chart below demonstrates examples of IUPAC naming schemes for these classes of compounds:

Compound ClassSuffixExample
Acid chlorides-oyl chlorideMCAT Acid Derivatives - Ethanoyl chloride

Ethanoyl chloride

Anhydrides-oic anhydrideMCAT Acid Derivatives - Ethanoic anhydride

Ethanoic anhydride

Amides-amideMCAT Acid Derivatives - N-Ethyl ethanamide

N-Ethyl ethanamide

Esters-oateMCAT Acid Derivatives - Ethyl ethanoate

Ethyl ethanoate

Acid Derivatives Properties

See Acid Derivatives Properties

Reactions

See Acid Derivatives Reactions

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